Shaft hole fit calculation


Tolerance Fit

In engineering and manufacturing, "tolerance fit" refers to the relationship between the sizes of two mating parts, such as a shaft and a hole. This relationship determines how the two parts will fit together and function. There are three primary types of tolerance fits: clearance fit, interference fit, and transition fit. Each type serves different functional requirements and applications.

-Clearance Fit -

Description: In a clearance fit, there is always a gap or clearance between the mating parts. The size of the shaft is always smaller than the size of the hole.
Characteristics: This fit allows for easy assembly and disassembly. The degree of clearance can vary from slight to substantial, depending on the application.
Applications: Commonly used where parts need to move freely relative to each other, such as in bearings, sliding shafts, and removable parts.

-Interference Fit (Also Known as a Press Fit or Shrink Fit) -

Description: In an interference fit, the size of the shaft is larger than the size of the hole. To assemble these parts, force is required, and the parts deform slightly to fit together.
Characteristics: This fit creates a very tight assembly, with the parts effectively becoming a single unit. It may require heating or cooling during assembly to temporarily expand or contract the parts.
Applications: Used where the components must not move relative to each other, such as in gear hubs, drive shafts, and certain types of couplings.

-Transition Fit -

Description: A transition fit falls between clearance and interference fits. Depending on the actual sizes of the hole and shaft, which can vary within specified limits, the fit can either be a slight clearance or slight interference.
Characteristics: This fit provides a compromise between some freedom of assembly and a degree of fit snugness, allowing for either a small amount of clearance or interference.
Applications: Common in applications that require accurate location but not rigidity, such as dowel pins in machinery or alignment of certain automotive parts.

The selection of the appropriate type of fit depends on the requirements of the specific application, including the nature of the parts' function, the conditions they will be subjected to, and the desired ease or difficulty of assembly. These fits are standardized, with various specific fits categorized under these three broad types, each with its own standardized tolerances.